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End-User Needs and Contextual Design Katja Konkka and Satu Kalliokulju

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Esitys aiheesta: "End-User Needs and Contextual Design Katja Konkka and Satu Kalliokulju"— Esityksen transkriptio:

1 End-User Needs and Contextual Design Katja Konkka and Satu Kalliokulju
Lecture 2.

2 Phase 1. Contextual Inquiry (…continues)

3 How to make Affinity notes?
Affinity note is written from observation notes One affinity note contains only one observation item Other notes do not offer explanations: Affinity note should be understood as is Important questions are: What? Why? Use the given template Each note is preceded by the user code and a sequence number according to the observation note

4 Examples: Good affinity notes
F1-6. He said that when in car he uses the handset for important calls because there is better audio quality and when he wants to avoid missing any details. U3-4. When he changes the radio station he uses predefined station buttons, because he has already stored his preferred radio stations to these buttons. O6-13. Sends SMS messages only occasionally, since it is so difficult to type in messages. S5-10. He changed the phone from the belt holder to the jacket pocket in order to get it easier out.

5 Examples: Poor affinity notes
F2-2. When not with her, the answering service is on. S6-10. She writes more information in to the documents. O5-25. Very conservative person what comes to the use of technology O3-3. Uses one big calendar, one small calendar and electric calendar of the parliament.

6 Building Affinity Wall
 Affinity notes are printed and cut: single observation on each piece of paper  Grouping of the observations  building the affinity wall  Bottom-up method  Single notes are grouped one by one according the similarity of their contents (i.e. idea behind the note).  These groups are labelled with coloured post-it notes, each colour representing a certain level on the hierarchy  Then the groups are combined with other groups to get the final construct of observations in a hierarchy of three levels.  Finding design ideas, holes in the data  Analysis of arising themes

7 Affinity Wall Top level theme Second level theme Third level theme
Profiles Design ideas Issues

8 Affinity Wall Hmmm… Who observed that user, was it Satu?
Let's ask her! What do you think is the idea behind this note?

9 After Building the Affinity
Data walk - Get familiar with your customer data Design iterations - Design ideas are added into the affinity

10 Work Models THE FLOW MODEL represents the communication and coordination necessary to do the work. THE CULTURAL MODEL represents constraints on the work caused by policy, culture, or values. THE SEQUENCE MODEL shows the detailed work steps necessary to achieve an intent. THE PHYSICAL MODEL shows the physical structure of the work environment as it affects the work. THE ARTIFACT MODEL shows the physical things created to support the work, along with their structure, usage, and intent. By Karen Holtzblatt

11 Benefits FLOW MODEL - Gives a general picture of people and parties (including other companies, authorities, etc.) with whom the observed people are in contact with and/or have to coordinate activities. - It can also be used to identify which media observees are using while communicating with these various parties. - Gives a picture of the roles people have in organisation. CULTURAL MODEL - Gives a general picture of formal and informal policies in an organisation. It reveals the business climate created by competitors, government requirements, the self-image of the people doing the work, and the feelings and fears created by the people or groups in the organisation.

- It can have several levels of detail, and these levels are useful for different purposes. The high-level sequences describe the task flow as a general description of work. - The lower level sequence can be used as use cases to describe point of observees' activities where our products could have -or are already having- a role; problematic situations are also found. - The most detailed sequences can describe uses of tools or "life cycles of artefacts" as observees use them in their work. A detailed sequence model could be used as a starting point to a "future scenario" of how our product could solve. PHYSICAL MODEL - It gives an overall picture of the observees' physical environment, including tools and devices which are used for work and information organisation, and for personal communication.

- Artefacts (such as a calendar, a notebook…) can be described on a level that illustrate the "ideal Artefact" as a design goal (e.g. what kind of calendar would satisfy all observees). - Artefact models illustrate the design implications about how an application should work in our product.

14 Consolidated artefact: calendar
Phonebook: -Link to a phonebook. -Info should be found based on time. -Icon is displayed if there is some remarks. Notes may also be written across the rows (and colums). Possibility to change schedules without retyping e.g. by drawing an arrow. Personal marking scemes are used (e.g. highlighting). Remember to take the dog to the vet. To-do-list: -Link to to-do-lists. -Info should be found based on time. -Icon is displayed if there is some remarks. Notepad: -Link to notes. -Info should found based on time. -Icon is displayed if there is some remarks. A good week view is important. Saturday and Sunday don't necessary require as much room as other days.

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