2 Lauseenvastikkeilla tiivistetään ilmaisua, joten niitä käytetään paljon esim. tiivistelmissä, raporteissa, sanomalehtien otsikoissa.
3 Lauseesta vastikkeeksi 1) Mikäli subjekti on sama kuin päälauseessa, se jää pois lauseenvastikkeesta.2) Jos konjunktion merkitys on ilmeinen, se jää pois lauseenvastikkeesta.3) Predikaattiverbi voi ollaing-muodossa (aktiivi)3. muodossa (passiivi)infinitiivi (tietyt relatiivilauseet, kysyvät sivulauseet, tulevaisuutta, konditionaalia, imperatiivia ilmaisevat lauseet)tai puuttua kokonaan (mm. adjektiiviin liittyvät relatiivilauseet)
4 AKTIIVI When I entered, the car park, I saw the broken car windows. After I had stared at my car for a while, I realized the car stereo was gone.Before I called the police, I took a couple of deep breaths.On entering the car park, I saw the broken car windows.(After) Having stared at my car for a while, I realized the car stereo was gone.Before calling the police, I took a couple of deep breaths.
5 PASSIIVIWhen I was asked to show my ID, I realised my wallet had been stolen, to.If the car stereo was found, it would be returned to me.After I had been interviewed, I was ready to go home.Asked to show my ID, I realised my wallet had been stolen, too.If found, the car stereo would be returned to me.Having been interviewed, I was ready to go home.
6 INFINITIIVI It was the only crime that I had witnessed. There are windows that need to be fixed nows.I didn’t know where I should start with the mess.It was the only crime for me to have witnessed.There’re windows to be fixed now.I didn’t know where to start with the mess.
7 VERBITÖN Anyone who has half a brain can solve this. While my friend had been on holiday abroad, his mobile had been stolen. Anyone with half a brain can solve this.While on holiday abroad, my friend’s mobile had been stolen